Here you can find few general tips for new players in the Starbound game.
Tips for Newbies
Try to gather resources to build weapons and healing items. Also you could build a house underground so mobs won’t try to kill you all the time so you can craft and store things easily. I’d also recommend doing this because you’re going to have to find core fragments to power up the gate on the planet and the fragments are pretty deep underground. It’s been years since I’ve actually done the unmodded version of the game so my past experience is pretty vague but I hope this helps.
There is also an mining facility on the starting planet, find it and search the boxes for fragments or other ores you can use for crafting. Don’t recommend making it your home because there’s mobs residing there.
Start looting guns if you arent good with melee weapons. Especially grenade launchers or shotguns. Also crafting, theres so much crafting in the game.